This study examines the determinants of recreation participation, intensity, and venue choice in Virginia. The study has several components. It reviews literature in economics and leisure science on recreation demand and recreation participation choices. It assesses different categories of population-based methods to project outdoor recreation needs. It provides an alternative way to compute local and regional needs based on the idea of catchment areas for different recreational activities. It presents exploratory multivariate statistical analyses to examine recreational participation, intensity, venue choice and travel distance to better understand the associated facilitators and impediments to recreational participation in Virginia. Lastly, it presents two competing methodologies for projecting statewide needs and gaps.